Osteoarthritis : the major symptoms and causes

Osteoarthritis, also known as Degenerative Arthritis, is the most common type of arthritis and a cause of permanent disability worldwide. It is the type of arthritis that affects the body joints of a person such as the joints in the hands, neck, lower back, knees or hips. It occurs due to the wearing down of the protective tissue at a joint. Further, Osteoarthritis often lead to cartilage degradation, the generation of wear particles, thickening of synovium, subchondral bone alterations and the growth of osteophytes at the margins of the joints.

Symptoms of Osteoarthritis:

The symptoms of Osteoarthritis are most apparent after the onset of the disease. However, it includes a range of symptoms given here under:

Pain:  The patient feels a persistent pain in the affected areas during a movement.
Stiffness:  Joint stiffness follows inactivity or right after waking up from sleep.
Tenderness: The patient feels joint tenderness upon exertion of pressure on the affected area or near it.
Loss of flexibility:  Since it affects the joints, the patient might undergo loss of flexibility and might feel the inability of movement of the joints to its full capacity.
Grating sensation: The patient senses a grating sensation upon the usage of their joint muscles. This might follow with a popping or crackling sound from the affected area with each movement.
Bone spurs: The patient notices a bony growth that develops on the edge of a bone. This might feel like thick bumps and can form encompassing the affected joint.
Swelling: The patient might notice sudden swelling around the joints. This occurs due to soft tissue inflammation around the joint.

Causes of Osteoarthritis:

Osteoarthritis occurs due to the progressive loss of articular cartilage. In simple words, it means that the occurrence of this disease takes place when the protective tissue surrounding the edge of the bones wears down. However, certain factors are said to increase the risk of developing Osteoarthritis in a lifetime. The factors are age, gender, joint injury, physical exertion or sports, obesity, sex, race and ethnicity, genetics, nutrition, smoking and injuries/trauma to the joint.


The treatment of Osteoarthritis includes different medical procedures ranging from medication to therapy to surgery or other procedures.
Medication such as Acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Duloxetine (Cymbalta) are said to relieve the patients from the chronic pain attached to the disease along with other symptoms associated with the same. Whereas, therapies are of two types namely Physical therapy and Occupational therapy. Both these therapies assist the patient in regaining the movement of their joint muscles with ease and without pain or any other disturbances. Surgeries are suggested when these conservative treatments do not produce the expected results. These methods of treatment often include injecting, certain injections to relieve the pain or re positioning of the bones. While at the extreme case the patient may opt for a joint replacement.

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What is Psychotherapy & how it works ?

Psychotherapy | Specialist in Jamshedpur | CureMantra

Psychotherapy also known as talk therapy is a kind of therapy where a trained professional makes communication with an individual suffering from mental problem. It is one is to one communication where a psychologist or psychiatrist solves the mental health problem of an individual by counselling sessions.

While going through Psychotherapy an individual understands his/her rights & wrongs, about feelings, thoughts, behaviors & other conditions. The individual slowly starts to share all his/her talks with someone who is non judgemental, supportive & neutral. Through this discussion both the psychologist & the individual work together to find out the problems which has lead to this mental health problem.


If you are going through frustration, depression or any other kind of mood patterns it is always advisable to consult with a Psychologist before it takes a huge turn. Talking therapy is too much effective since you get the opportunity to talk with someone & share your thoughts with a person who is way far from your surroundings.

Types of Psychotherapy:

There are normally 3 types of Psychotherapy. Not all the types are appropriate for all cases. Depending on the kind of psychological issue the individual is dealing with, the type of psychotherapy is being used. The 3 types are:

Insight Therapy: This therapy is for individual understanding in terms of ‘whys’ & ‘hows’. This kind of therapy is for individuals to understand why they are feeling or doing such things. Once they realize the reason then they work for progress & by themselves find ways to overcome it. It is for the realization among individuals about their wrong did & the reason behind that.

Behavioral Therapy: This therapy is to make an individual learn that how to respond in a positive way without showing bad behavior. This therapy is not to find out the reason that why they are responding rudely & weirdly, but this therapy helps an individual to learn & change his bad behaviors.

Biomedical Therapy: This therapy is used in severe conditions & is conducted by a Psychiatrist or a Doctor who got specialization in psychological issues. This therapy is mostly done through medication like Prozac or Wellbutrin. Other biomedical therapies like psycho surgery or electric shock are being used in cases where the medications fail.

How it works ?

Through Psychotherapy the Specialist understands & identify the problems behind the individuals unpredictable behavior and mental illness. It might be due to loss of job, divorce, death of close one or some serious illness. Once the reason is being revealed the Psychotherapist could able to understand in which aspect he should keep on counselling the individual to solve his/her psychological disorder & make him/her understand how to improve.

Counseling sessions | Psychotherapy | Talking therapy | CureMantra

When to consult with a psychotherapist?

Psychotherapy is not only for individuals who are going through chronic mental problems , but people need psychotherapy in cases like excessive depression, frustration, or behaving weirdly for a long time. As being said it is always beneficial to take preventive measure before it turns into a chronic disease. If you are going through the below mentioned symptoms you are advised to consult with a Specialist for improvement.

– Your continuous nature of rude, weird behavior towards others
– Your continuous habit of drinking alcohol, or other kind of drugs & then being aggressive towards your family &           friends
– Your feeling of destroying nature
– Not getting concentration on any kind of daily activities & losing control
– Feeling alone, sad & helpless
– Not behaving normally in front of others & always going through negative attitude

Conclusion: Psychotherapy deals with psychological issues like depression, frustration, anxiety and other kinds of psychological disorders. As being mentioned talking & sharing your opinions with a psychotherapist helps to overcome your mental, attitude and other behavioral problems. Make sure to consult a Specialist to get rid of your mental problems at the earliest.

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lung cancer

Lung Cancer – the major symptoms , causes & types

Lung Cancer is the result of abnormal division of cells in the lungs forming a lump called tumor which is malignant in nature. As per studies it is the most destructive form of cancer causing due to cigarette smoking.

Lung Cancer is much more harmful & leading reason behind cancer death than any other type of cancer like breast, ovarian, colon & prostrate cancers. Mostly it remains undiagnosed at an early stage & gets diagnosed only when it is on the advanced stage.

Causes of Lung Cancer:

The primary cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. According to research it has been found that cigarette smoke contains 4000 chemicals, most of which have been identified as cancer causing agents (carcinogens )  which affects the lung cells directly. The risk of getting lung cancer from cigar & pipe smoking is less in comparison to cigarette smoking.

As per studies, a person who smokes 1 packet of cigarette per day has minimum 20-25% times more chance of developing this cancer than a person who has never smoked in his entire life. Lung  can develop among people who have never smoked at all but the ratio is comparatively too less than among those who are regular smokers.

Tobacco smoking is the main reason behind this kind of cancer, although heredity (i.e. family history) sometimes plays a vital role in developing this disease also. If in your family there is already someone who has /had suffered from this fatal disease then there is a chance of yours also going through the same.

Other causes might be due to passive smoking, air pollution, workplace chemicals, & inhalation of asbestos (a kind of material apply for insulation & fire proofing).

According to studies it has been known that approximately 3000 deaths from lung cancer in U.S. are from passive smoking only.

Types of Lung Cancer:

2 main types of lung cancer are there:

Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC): This type of cancer is only common among the heavy smokers & those are only visible with a microscope. SCLC is the aggressive one in comparison to NSCLC. It metastasizes very quickly & spreads all over the body.

Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) : Most of the lung cancer are grouped under NSCLC. This type of cancer includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma & large cell carcinoma.


 Symptoms of Lung Cancer:

Cancer in lungs is hard to diagnose its early stage since in most cases this type of cancer do not display any symptoms until it is on the advanced stage. Though normally the symptoms include:

–          Coughing up blood

–          Cough which is continuous for many days & does not go away & gets worse day by day

–          Unexpected  amount of weight loss without any reason

–          Frequent occurrence of infections like bronchitis or pneumonia or tuberculosis.

–          Having breathing problem

–          Hoarseness

–          Feeling tremendously weak & tired

–          Chest pain

–          Stridor ( a harsh vibrating noise while breathing in )

When to consult a Doctor?

If anyone is going through any one of the above symptoms on a regular basis then it is always advisable to consult with a Doctor. If you want to quit smoking & unable to do so, then please do consult with a Doctor. He can guide you in a proper way & can recommend you certain procedures like counselling, medication & nicotine replacement products.

Prevention:  The one & only prevention is to quit smoking. Though you have continuously smoking for many years, quitting smoking do reduces the risk of this disease. Also try to avoid passive smoking. Try not to stay with people at the time of their smoking or ask them to smoke outside.

Treatment:  The most possible treatments include are surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy.

Conclusion: As being said smoking is injurious to health since cigarette smoke contains chemicals called carcinogens. Try to avoid smoking since smokers have much more tendency of developing this disease than non smokers. Do not delay & consult with Doctor at the earliest if you are suffering from any of the symptoms.

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Migraine – more than just a common headache

Migraine - more than just a common headache | CureMantra

Migraine is a severe & deadly kind of headache preceded by nausea, vomiting & utmost sensitivity to light & sound. This tremendous pain can last from 4 hours to even days. Sometimes this attack is so severe that it can hamper your daily working activities even.

It is a very serious condition & shouldn’t be ignored once diagnosed. According to studies, women are more likely to get affected by this severe pain rather than men. It mostly strike people aged between 15 to 55 years. This deadly pain appears on one side of the head & is a result of specific changes within the brain.

Symptoms & stages of Migraine:

The level of Migraine varies from person to person. Mostly there are four common stages :

Prodome : Just a day or 2 days before migraine you may face sudden changes in your mood like feeling irritable, depressed, neck stiffness, consumption of water in huge quantity & urination. This stage is being defined as Prodome since these symptoms occur few days before the actual pain starts.

Aura: This stage might occur just before or during the Migraine. These are visual or other sensory disturbances. In some cases patients develop some disturbances in their visual phenomena like various geometrical shapes, colorful spots or strong flash of light, vision loss. For some patients difficulty in speaking, unmanageable jerking may also occur. These symptoms appear slowly & then persist for 30-60 minutes in some cases.

Attack / Headache: Migraine may last from 4 to 72 hours if treatment is not done properly. Normally this severe pain appears on one side of the head but in some cases it may occur on both the sides. People with migraine attack do have vomiting tendency, nausea, become too much sensitive to light (photophobia) & loud sounds ( phonophobia).

Postdrome : Migraine attack is a serious one & the pain becomes unbearable in most cases. Once the migraine gets off, the patient feels tired, unable to think clearly, not willing to eat properly & gets confused.

When to consult a Doctor?

Migraine can take a very serious condition if not treated on time. If you are almost facing the following symptoms on a regular basis then it is the time to consult with a Doctor or a Health care Specialist for treatment.

• A severe headache carried on for days
• Unbearable headache with vomiting tendency, nausea, sneezing, coughing
• Headache with weakness, stiff neck, high fever, irritation

Some common cause behind Migraine:

Heredity: If in your family somebody is having migraine then there is more chance of yours’ getting this disease.

Sex: As being researched it is more common in women than men.

Age: Studies have shown that it is most common among people aged between 15 to 55 years. But with growing age it becomes less painful & less frequent.

Hormonal changes: Since women have more tendency of going through this migraine attack, it slows down only after menopause. Those women who are having acute migraine might have the tendency of having this attack during menstruation because of the hormonal change.

Mood: Extreme level of stress, emotional shock, depression, unbearable mental pressure can trigger migraine.

Environment: Loud noise, strong smell, passive smoking, strong flash light can also trigger this kind of severe pain.

Treatment: At an early stage of migraine one can go through these steps to get relief from this severe headache. Still if the problem continues then it is advisable to consult with a Doctor for further treatment.

– Drinking adequate amount of water.
– Getting enough sleep
– Not shouting & laying silently in a dark room for few hours
– Reducing your stress
– Doing regular physical exercise
All these help to reduce the frequency of migraine.

Conclusion: Consult with the Doctors immediately if you are going through severe migraine for a longer period of time. Never ignore your health issues. Keep on doing regular check up at least once in 6 months as you grow older to keep yourself healthy.

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Walking the most effective exercise & a great workout

Walking the most effective exercise & a great workout | CureMantra

Tired with going to gym everyday? Start walking to keep yourself physically healthy, fit & fine. Many of us might have some questions in mind that in spite of walking on a regular basis why we are facing so health problems? But to be practical, you need to follow some steps if you want to make your walk a mode of exercise. Keep reading to know how daily walk can be as helpful as an exercise & what are the basic steps you need to follow for it.

Walking the most productive cardio exercise

Brisk or fast or speed walking is really a good cardio exercise. A brisk stroll is better than any kind of workout. As you walk faster keeping the same pace, your heart starts pumping much faster thus distributing the blood to all parts of the body more efficiently. Over time brisk walk makes your heart stronger thus lowering the blood pressure.

How much to walk daily?

If you are walking at a moderate speed, then it is advisable to walk at least 30 minutes a day & 5 days in a week. Brisk walk needs minimum 2.5 hours of walk a week or 30-90 minutes most days of the week to reduce your body weight. Depending on your weight a brisk walk can burn 100-300 calories in first 30 minutes or 200 -600 calories in an hour.

Walking or running – which one is considered as the best exercise?

As per the paper published in “American Heart Association journal‘ it is being stated that both walking & running helps in reducing high blood pressure, high cholesterol & type 2 Diabetes.

Running requires more energy & motivation in comparison to walking. Running is always a much more challenging & demanding activity. But those who are going through joint injuries or back pain it is always advisable to walk as brisk walk is considered as moderate intensity exercise & running is considered robust intensity exercise.

One needs to walk for a longer period of time to get the same benefit as of running.

Benefits of walking:

-protects you from heart disease & stroke
-increases cardiovascular & pulmonary fitness
-helps in maintaining physical fitness
– reduces the risk of high blood pressure
– burning calories & losing weight
– improves digestion
-having sound sleep
-walking alleviates back pain
-boosts your energy levels & improves your mood
-reduce the risk of breast cancer
-walking regularly makes your bones & muscles stronger.
-reduces stress, anxiety & depression.
-helps prevent Dementia & Alzheimer’s

Conclusion – Walking is the most effective exercise if done properly on a regular basis. Walk daily & keep yourself active & free from many kind of illness. Book Doctors online through CureMantra’s app & consult if you are going through any health related  problems.

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